RFID Based Automatic Car Parking System
Radio-frequency identification (RFID) is an automatic identification method wherein the data stored on RFID tags or transponders is remotely retrieved. The RFID tag is a device that can be attached to or incorporated into a product, animal or person for identification and tracking using radio waves. Some tags can be read from several metres away, beyond the line of sight of the reader.
RFID technology is used in vehicle parking systems of malls and buildings. The system normally consists of a vehicle counter, sensors, display board, gate controller, RFID tags and RFID reader. Presented here is an automatic vehicle parking system using AVR microcontroller.
RFID system fundamentals
Basically, an RFID system consists of an antenna or coil, a transceiver (with decoder) and a transponder (RF tag) electronically programmed with unique information. There are many different types of RFID systems in the market. These are categorised on the basis of their frequency ranges. Some of the most commonly used RFID kits are low-frequency (30-500kHz), mid-frequency (900kHz-1500MHz) and high-frequency (2.4-2.5GHz).
How this vehicle parking system works
To get started with RFID-based automatic vehicle parking system, the vehicle owner has to first register the vehicle with the parking owner and get the RFID tag. When the car has to be parked, the RFID tag is placed near the RFID reader, which is installed near the entry gate of the parking lot. As soon as the RFID tag is read by the reader, the system automatically deducts the specified amount from the RFID tag and the entry gate boomer opens to allow the car inside the parking area. At the same time, the parking counter increments by one. Similarly, the door is opened at the exit gate and the parking counter decremented.
The system also offers the facility to recharge the amount for each RFID tag. No manual processing is involved. In addition, the system provides security.
1. AVR Microcontroller
3. RFID Reader
4. RFID Card
5. 7805 Voltage Regulator
12. BC547 Transistor
13. DC Motor